Logic relations

This post presents the so-called logiske relasjoner. Events and actions can communicate with each other in different ways:

Table taken from the book Håndbook i grammatikk og språkbruk (Høgberg, 2006) and translated by me:

Reason/Cause (Årsak) Ettersom Jon løp så fort han kunne, rakk han bussen
Consequence (Følge) Bob løp så fort han kunne, han rakk bussen
Purpose (Hensikt) Per løp så fort han kunne, for at han skulle rekke bussen
Concession (Motsetning) Ola løp så fort han kunne, men han rakk ikke bussen
Condition (Vilkør) Hvis Jan løper so fort han kan rekker han bussen

Årsak (giving reasons)

In the table above we see that “Ettersom Jon løp så fort han kunne” relates the reason why he managed to take the bus. It corresponds to the conjuctions as, because, seeing that, seeing as, or since in English (since Jon ran as fast as he could, he managed to get the bus). In Portuguese there’re, uma vez que, como, etc. (como Jon correu o mais rápido que pôde, ele pegou o ônibus).

It’s possible to make questions to discover the reason: hvorfor kom Per for sent på jobben? Hva var årsaken til det?

With a conjunction: Per kom for sent på jobben, for bussen var forsinket.
With subjunctions: Per kom for sent på jobben, fordi bussen var forsinket.
Fordi/ettersom/siden bussen var forsinket, kom Per for sent på jobben

As we see, it’s possible to use conjunction and some subjunctions to compose a sentence which presents a reason or cause. Ettersom and siden are used when the cause is known beforehand (som du vet, as you know). Fordi is used when one explains something that is not known beforehand.

There are, however, other ways to compose causal sentences: using adverbs like nemlig, special verbs like skylde and komme av and with the preposition på grunn av:

with the adverb nemlig: Per kom for sent på jobben.
Per arrived late at work.
Bussen var nemlig forsinket.
The bus was in fact delayed.
with the verbs å skylde and å komme av: At Per kom for sent på jobben,
At Per kom for sent på jobben,
skyldtes bussforsinkelse
kom av at bussen var forsinket.
with the preposition på grunn av: På grunn av bussforsinkelse
Because of a bus delay,
kom Per for sent på jobben
Per arrived late at work


Følge (consequences/results)

In the table above we see that “så han rakk bussen” is the consequence of his effort by running fast. It corresponds to such that, in such a way that in English (Jon ran as fast as he could in such a way that he reached the bus). In Portuguese we have de maneira que, portanto, etc. (Jon correu o mais rápido que pode de maneira que pôde alcançar o ônibus).

It’s possible to make questions to discover the reason: Hva skjedde på grunn av at bussen var forsinket? Hva ble følgen av det?

With a conjunction: Bussen var forsinket,
The bus was delayed,
Per kom for sent på jobben.
so Per arrived late at work.
With subjunctions: Bussen var forsinket
Bussen var forsinket
The bus was delayed
slik at Per kom for sent på jobben
at Per kom for sent på jobben
in such a way that Per arrived late at work.

As we see, it’s possible to use conjunction and some subjunctions to compose a sentence which presents the result.

But it’s also possible to compose sentences using adverb (derfor, av den grunn) and some special verbs (føre til, gjøre):

with the adverbs derfor and av den grunn: Bussen var forsinket.
The bus was delayed.
Derfor/Av den grunn kom Per for sent på jobben.
Because of that, Per arrived late at work.
with the verbs føre til and gjøre: Bussforsinkelsen førte til/gjorde at
The bus delay resulted that
Per kom for sent på jobben
Per arrived late at work

Hensikt (Purpose)

In the table above we see that “for at han skulle rekke bussen” is the purpose. It corresponds to so that, so in English (Jon ran as fast as he could so that he would reach the bus). In Portuguese we have para que/a fim de etc. (Jon correu o mais rápido que pôde a fim de alcançar o ônibus alcançar o ônibus).

It’s possible to make questions to discover the purpose: Hvorfor løp han så fort?

With subjunctions: Per måtte løpe
Per måtte løpe
Per måtte løpe
Per had to run
for at han skulle rekke toget.
slik at han kunne rekke toget.
han skulle rekke toget.
so that he would/could catch the train.

As we see, after for at, slik at and we have to use skulle or kunne as modal verb. The subjunction slik at in this sense has nothing to do with that which gives a result, as seen above.

There’s also the possibility to use for å + verb in the infinitive to present the purpose.

for å + verb: Per måtte løp
Per had to run
for å rekke toget.
to catch the train.

Motsetning (concession) or uventet sammenheng (unexpected context)

In the table above we see that “men han rakk ikke bussen” expresses an unexpected event, i.e. something that is not exactly what we expected. The English language uses but, in spite of the fact that, despite the fact that, despite/in spite of + -ing, although, even though to compose sentences like that (although Jon ran as fast as he could, he didn’t managed to get the bus). In Portuguese we have mas, no entanto, embora, etc. (Jon correu o mais rápido mas não alcançou o ônibus).

To compose an unexpectet event we can make also use of a conjunction (men, likevel, imidlertid), subjunctions (enda, skjønt, selv om, til tross for at, trass i at).

With subjunctions: Trass i at Bjørnson ikke var så flink på skolen,
Til tross for at Bjørnson ikke var så flink på skolen
Enda Bjørnson ikke var så flink på skolen,
Skjønt Bjørnson ikke var så flink på skolen,
Selv om Bjørnson ikke var så flink på skolen,
Although Bjørson was not so good at school,
ble han en stor dikter.
ble han en stor dikter.
ble han en stor dikter.
ble han en stor dikter.
ble han en stor dikter.
he became a great poet.
With conjunctions: Bjørnson var ikke så flink på skolen,
Bjørnson var ikke så flink på skolen.
Bjørson was not so good at school,
men han ble en stor dikter.
Likevel, han ble en stor dikter.
but he became a great poet.

When there’s a hit of condition in the sentence, we use om, om, selv om and enda om. The subconjunctions even if in English and mesmo se in Portuguese are good translations to them. Sentences of this kind are normally in the subjunctive mode.

With subjunctions Om/enda om/selv om du hadde gitt meg bilen gratis,
Even if you had given me the car for free, 

Vi skal gjennomføre turen,
We will complete the tour,

Om/enda om/selv om været holder seg,
Even if the weather stays as it is,

ville jeg ikke hatt ham.
I would not have taken it. 

om/enda om/selv om det skulle koste oss livet.
even if it costs our lives.

er det ikke sikkert vi bør ta den skituren.
it’s not certain we should take the sky trip.

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